posted from Bloggeroid
Senin, 07 Juni 2010
Musdalifah (H311 07 012)
Theme : Nuclear for Peace and Welfare
NUCLEAR FOR OUR HEALTH
Today it was very busy talking about the government's plans for using nuclear as a source of electrical energy. But the public at the selected locations, furiously rejected the government's plan, currently there are many pros and contras about using nuclear power for all types of application. This time we won’t talk about source electrical energy, but we will try to talk about “nuclear for health”. This is most likely due to the community’s initial perception of the nuclear is minimally and mostly negative. Currently nuclear scourge to society. Number of negative information about nuclear early this makes people afraid of nuclear. For example there are so many biological effects of ionizing radiation : Radiation Burns and Cancer Therapy, Early Suggestions for Exposure Standards, Sterility and Cataracts, Blood Disorders, Cancer and Life-Shortening, Radium Jaw, Anemia and Septic Infections, Cancer of the Bones and Head, Radium Novelties, Radium Injections, Cancer of the Lung, Radon Progeny, Radon Seeds, Genes and Chromosomes, The Nature of Genetic Damage, Genetic Damage in Fruit Flies and Mice, Genetic Damage in Human Populations, Teratogenic Effects, Units of Exposure and Dose, etc.
Some of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation were apparent from the outset. Too much x-radiation caused recurrent reddening of the skin or loss of hair, hours or days later, often followed by painful radiation burns. By 1897, 69 cases of skin damage were reported. By 1902, hundreds of cases of x-ray injuries were documented. Surgery was often needed to repair the damage.
In 1896, in Chicago, after painfully injuring his hand with x-rays, W. Grubbe decided to focus those same rays on a cancerous tumor, using lead to shield himself from unwanted exposure. His was the first recorded therapeutic use of such rays to shrink tumours. That same year, scientists in several other countries began using x-rays to treat cancer and to relieve arthritic pain. Gamma rays were found to be equally potent. In 1898, Becquerel carried a sealed tube of radium in his vest pocket. As a result, he got a nasty burn on his chest which ulcerated and left a scar. At about the same time, Marie Curie's hands suffered painful radiation burns after she handled a thin metal box containing a small tube of radium.
Before long, radium-filled "needles" were being used to treat solid tumors. Such a needle, inserted into an unwanted growth, would deliver most of its harmful gamma energy to the diseased tissue, while minimizing the dose to healthy tissue. Workers preparing the needles, surgeons implanting them, and nurses attending the patients, often received substantial gamma doses.
20th century was marked by remarkable developments in science and technology, including the disciplines of science and nuclear technology in medicine and health. Important breakthrough in the field of science and technology is a very valuable contribution to the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases including diseases that are epidemologis appear as logical consequence of development in all areas that have increased the social economic condition. Industry and Health are the two main areas of benefit. The use of radiation for diagnostic, therapeutic, and the use of a radiopharmaceutical for medical applications of nuclear techniques to health. The use of radiation for radiography, gauging, and logging, is the application of nuclear techniques in industry.
Public acceptance of nuclear technology's presence in public space, it is hard to deny its existence. The challenge of community acceptance of nuclear technology must respond proportionately and sensibly. Remember that the implementation of the utilization of nuclear technology for both energy and non energy sources, current is needed to meet public demand, the issue of community acceptance of nuclear techniques application must be completed. For that is needed more appropriate strategic policy in growing public confidence in the guarantee of a reliable safety for people in public spaces that make use of nuclear technology. More appropriate strategy is a show of performance that reflects the ability to provide reliable safety assurance to the public.
Most of the Indonesian population is still classified as living under the poverty threshold also reflects the health of low quality. Development outcomes haven’t been able to raise the health level of the Indonesian community who live under the poverty line to a reasonable level, multi-dimensional crisis that hit the Indonesian nation from 1998 to trigger a variety of things that cause a decrease in the level of public health that ever existed. Special problems in the field of public health, namely the reemergence of diseases that previously had been successfully reduced as low as possible, such as dengue fever, malaria, tuberculosis and infectious diseases Filaria worms (elephantiasis).
Before telling more and more, we have to know about nuclear power first, nuclear power : is the power of any kind released in the core transformation process, including energy derived from sources of ionizing radiation. Improving the quality of public health through infectious disease prevention programs and health care improvement programs adequate for the low economic communities is urgent. Nuclear technology has great potential to contribute to efforts to improve the quality of health. In health so many diseases that can be detected and cured with radiation technology, for example dengue fever can be overcome with the Sterile Insect Technique (TSM) and the manufacture of vaccine with gamma radiation, Helicobacter pylori infection can be detected early infection with UNU - 14C (Urea Breath Test), Filaria worm infection can be detected early with radioactive tracer, Malnutrition disease can be detected early with a Technique of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Poisoning environmental contaminants in various ways into the human body, can be investigated the contaminant substances with NAA, bone defect and tissue injury, cured by producing biomaterials with ionizing radiation techniques for clinical purposes, Contamination of HIV and hepatitis viruses (HBV and HCV) in blood transfusion reserves can be detected with Nuclear-Based Techniques for Molecular Biology, Technological limitations of sterilization of foodstuffs for patients with low immunity can be overcome by food sterilized with ionizing radiation.
Here will be explained further on sterile insect technique, Sterile Insect Technique is an insect pest control technique that relatively new and potential insect control technique, environment freely, effective, species specific, and compatible to other technique. The basic principles of sterile insect technique is very simple i.e.to kill insects with their own species. This technique includes irradiation of insect colony in the laboratory using gamma, n, or x rays and then release them in the field periodically in each generations to obtain the increase of sterility probability level to the generations which cause decreasing the fertility level in the field , theoretically in the fourth generation the fertility approach to zero percentage, so in fifth generation the insects are fully eradicated. The factor is believed causing sterility is dominant lethal mutation.
The next is Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), NAA is one of the nuclear techniques used to quantify the chemical elements contained in a material. This technique is based on the reaction of thermal neutron capture by atomic nuclei contained in the test material. This nuclear reaction takes place in facilities that provide a source of neutron irradiation. The result of these interactions generate new atomic species of the excess neutrons and a single fruit in an unstable state. To achieve the stable state, unstable species are releasing beta particles that are generally followed by gamma ray emission. Gamma rays are emitted is characteristic for each radionuclide, and generally will form a spectrum of so-called gamma spectrum. By using high resolution HPGe detector, the spectrum that is formed can be sorted and radio nuclides contained in the material can be identified and then quantified. This technique has many advantages, namely that the test is not destructive, a relatively high measurement sensitivity to nanogram (10-12 g), high selectivity with the ability to identify elements simultaneously. Thus, evaluation of the elements contained in the material can be determined simultaneously in a relatively small number of samples (50-100 mg).
Contagious or infectious disease is still one important diseases and becoming a national problem due to serious repercussions on public health in Indonesia. Communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis (TBC), Dengue, Malaria, filariasis and other infectious diseases need to be better handled. Diseases due to infection has spent over a very large order to control and overcome it. Infection or disease caused by infection has caused the death of as many as 13 million people worldwide each year, mainly in developing countries like Indonesia. Large mortality can be prevented if it is done quickly and accurately diagnose and is supported by effective and efficient handling, among others, through the development of nuclear-based detection techniques. Nuclear techniques can be used to complement conventional diagnostic techniques that length of procedure (laborious) and less sensitive. Nuclear techniques are unique / specific and offers several advantages such as more sensitive and rapid. ICRP, through various kinds of competence in the field of nuclear technology for health is expected to take to solve the problem of infectious diseases in Indonesia so that the control of infectious diseases can be implemented more effectively and efficiently through a comprehensive R & D activities and integrated so that at a time will come about the role of the ICRP, as a place of service , research, education and network (networking), both nationally and internationally. Research results are summarized in the Development of Detection Technique patterned Infectious Diseases.
Nuclear medicine is one area of expertise in medicine, using radioactive isotopes in a safe, painless and relatively inexpensive means, for purposes of diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Organ imaging via nuclear medicine techniques can be said is unique because in addition to describing the function of a general description of the anatomy of organs. In this way medical information can be obtained without going through surgery, that otherwise may not be possible because the technique requires surgery or a more expensive cost. Because of its ability to describe the function and structure of organs, many diseases that can be detected early, so treatment becomes more effective. The use of radioactive isotopes in nuclear medicine which can be termed a radiopharmaceutical in vivo, namely a number of radiopharmaceutical is inserted directly into the patient's body, or in vitro, ie, biological samples from the patients reacted with radioisotopes in the tube. In vivo procedures, radiopharmaceutical will be injected into the target organs through the bloodstream and participate in the process - a process associated with the function of these organs. In vitro procedure, one of which is the technique of Radio Immuno Assay (RIA), radioisotopes attached to a particular antigen reacted with biological samples, can be used to measure levels of substances (eg hormones) in the patient's body. To diagnose the disease, an inspection result image is the mapping of nuclear medicine radiopharmaceutical distribution at the target organ that describes the function. For disease therapy, metabolic therapy using radionuclide techniques is a powerful method for the treatment of cancer. Radiation dose to the target tissue selectively chosen through systematic mechanisms and non-invasive. Nuclear medicine, which is the result of multidisciplinary collaboration that includes physiology, instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, mathematical modeling, computer science, radiobiologi, radiation protection, statistics and clinical applications will continue to grow in line with the development of scientific fields including nano-technology.
After knowing so many nuclear role for the health, either for healing or for early detection in the field of medicine, by it's not worth our time and make nuclear scare as a scourge in our lives, environment-friendly nuclear technology and is able to reduce the greenhouse effect. This is the time for us to learn more and also introduced to the public that nuclear technology is not absolute by assuming the negative impression, even nuclear technology could bring major changes in our environment, especially in our beloved country, Indonesia.